Instructions to Author

Manuscripts should be written in the English language (using American spelling). They should be typed using Goudy Old Style fonts, 1.5 spaced using 2.5 cm wide margins all around, in Words format, not pdf.


  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • Funding Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Text tables
  • Figure legends


  • Title page
  • Introduction
  • Keywords
  • The Case
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Please refer to the ICMJE recommendations on manuscript preparation and submission. The format may be altered for review articles, if necessary.


The title page bears:

(a) Title

(b) Name(s) of Author(s). Include ORCID ID of each author.

(c) Institution(s) where work was done

 (d) Authors to whom proofs should be sent with complete address, telephone number, and e-mail address.



An abstract (maximum 250 words) is typed single space. The abstract is structured under the headings (1) Background

(2) Methods

(3) Results

(4) Conclusion



No more than six key words are required.


Conflict of Interest Statement

A conflict of interest statement must also be included in the manuscript before any "Acknowledgements" and "Funding Acknowledgment" sections and should summarize all aspects of any conflicts of interest included on the ICMJE form. If there is no conflict of interest, authors must include 'Conflict of Interest: none declared' in their manuscript.



Substantive contributions of individuals should be noted in an Acknowledgements section and entered before the Conflict of Interest (COI) statement.

Funding Acknowledgment

Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear after the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

  1. a) The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  2. b) The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 sub-institutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  3. c) Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
  4. d) Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
  5. e) Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  6. f) Where individuals must be specified for certain sources of funding, the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]’.


An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the Indonesia Academy of Science [grant numbers]’


If the study did not involve any funding sources, it should be written as follow: ‘The authors received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors’


Units and Abbreviations 

Measurement unit should be stated using  standard SI units.



Figures should be limited to the number necessary for clarity and must not duplicate data given in tables or in the text. Standard submissions should have no more than 8 total figures and tables. Any number exceeding this should be designated as supplementary online-only material. They must be suitable for high quality reproduction and should be submitted in the desired final printed size so that reduction can be avoided. Figures should be no larger than 125 (height) x 180 (width) mm (5 x 7 inches) and should be submitted under the respective header (“Figure”) and in files separates from that of the main manuscript.


Electronic submission of figures: Figures should be saved in TIFF format at a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch at the final printed size for colour figures and photographs, and 1200 pixels per inch for black and white line drawings. While some formats can be converted into TIFFs by the publisher, conversion may alter the tones, resolution and contrast of the image. Digital colour art should be submitted in CMYK rather than RGB format, since the printing process requires colours to be separated into CMYK, and this conversion can alter the colour intensity and brightness. Please keep in mind that colours can appear differently on different screens and printers.


Line drawings should be clear: faint shading or stippling will be lost upon reproduction and should be avoided and heavy shading or stippling may appear black. Lines and symbols should be drawn boldly enough to stand reduction to the desired size. For graphs where reduction to one-half in linear dimensions is intended, a suitable thickness for the axis would be 0.3 mm and for the other lines 0.4 or 1.0 mm depending on the complexity of the graph. The preferred symbols are closed circle, open circle, closed square, open square, closed triangle, and open triangle and should be no smaller than 2 mm (height/diameter).


Photographs: Photographs should be of sufficiently high quality, i.e. JPG or TIFF formats with a minimum file size of 1 MB, and 300 dpi.  Please ensure that the photographs are of high quality with respect to detail, contrast, and low noise, to enable them to withstand loss of contrast and detail inherent in the printing process.


Colour figures: There are no charges for colour figures. Colour plates should be combined to make a single composite figure whenever possible.


Legends: A separate typewritten, double-spaced list of legends of all figures must be supplied and included in the text file. Each legend should contain sufficient explanation to be meaningful without cross-referencing. A scale of the original should be included in the legend unless already indicated in the picture. A description of the symbols used in the figures should be written out in full. Please do not include the character symbol in the legend. All labels used in figures should be in lower case in both the figure and the legend.



Tables should be typed with single spacing, but minimizing redundant space, and each table should be placed in separate pages. Wherever possible, tables should be submitted in portrait - as opposed to landscape - layout. Each table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals. Tables should also have a title above and an explanatory footnote below.



The references used in this journal follow the “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals” (updated February 2006) published by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors with some modifications. References cited should be numbered consecutively (with parentheses, or in superscript) by Arabic numerals in the order they first appear in the text. Identify also references in the tables and legends by Arabic numerals in parenthesesis or superscript.

Please make sure that every numbered reference in the text appears in the reference list, and vice versa. Reference cited only in tables or in legends should be numbered in accordance established by their first identification in the text. List authors, years, volume, and inclusive pages (the beginning and the last pages) of all journal references, and specific page numbers for all book references as shown below. Avoid referencing abstract, but if they are used, indicate them as such by the abbreviation [abstr] after the title. Do not use periods or semicolons after authors initials or after abbreviations. Personal communications, unpublished observations, and manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted for publication do not constitute references. Limit the use of electronic sources that have not been published in journals. Please rigidly follow the following examples of the most frequently used references. 

Personal communications, manuscripts in preparation and other unpublished data are not cited in the reference list but are mentioned in the text in parentheses.

Titles of journals should be abbreviated in accordance with Medline. Complete information should be given for each reference, including title of article, abbreviated journal title and inclusive pagination. All authors should be listed.

Authors are encouraged to use referencing software for the manuscript.



Standard journal article
List all authors when six or less, when seven or more, list only first six, and add et al. Include DOI for each article cited from a journal. Crossref DOIs should always be displayed as a full URL link in the form

  • Nussbaum C, Gloning A, Pruenster M, Frommhold D, Bierschenk S, Genzel-Boroviczeny O, et al. Neutrophil and endothelial adhesive function during human fetal ontogeny. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;93:175–84. DOI:
  • Salim E, Gunawijaya E, Yantie NPV. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in obese adolescents. 2019;60:18-23. DOI:

Volume with supplement

  • Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

Corporate author 

  • Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human breast milk. Pediatrics 1983;72:375-83. 
  • Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension 2002;40:679-86.

Chapter in book

  • Arnold L, Stern DT. What is medical professionalism? In: Stern DT, editor. Measuring medical professionalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 15-37. 
  • Dooley JM, Gordon KE. Headache in childhood. In: Feldman W, editor. Evidence-based pediatrics. Hamilton: BC Decker; 2000. p. 243-65.

 Book or monograph 

  • Armitage P, Berry G, Matthews GNS. Statistical methods in medical research. Massachussets: Blackwell Publ; 2002. • Murray R. How to write a thesis. Philadelphia: Open University Press; 2002.

 Seminar or conference

  • Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

 In press paper 

  • Sebodo T. Response of plasma and yeast-derived hepatitis vaccines in children. Paediatr Indones. In press 2002.

 Thesis or dissertation 

  • Sjarif DR. Glycerol kinase deficiency [dissertation]. Utrecht: University Medical Center Utrecht; 2000. 
  • Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

 Electronic materials 

  • Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from: Wawatch.htm 
  • Evidence based medicine tool kit. 
    Available from: url: 
  • American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. 
    Available from: ama/pub/category/1736.html.